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|Multiculturalism in the Modern World - Межнациональные отношения в современном мире|
Топик Multiculturalism in the Modern World - Межнациональные отношения в современном мире
Before talking about multiculturalism in the modern world let us give the definition of the word 'culture'. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture defines culture as 'the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all other products of human thought made by a particular group of people at a particular time'. Culture comprises all activities people practice, what they eat, how they dress, etc.
The modern world can be called multicultural due to racial, cultural and ethnic diversity. Through the process of globalization and immigration modern society has become a mixture of different nations and cultures. Cross-cultural contacts have grown significantly nowadays. Thanks to globalization we can enjoy foreign goods, food, music, ideas, technologies and practices. Multiculturalism supports the ideals of a democratic society in which every person is free and equal in dignity and rights. It leads to understanding, friendship and respect among racial and ethnic groups. All people are equal which enables them to participate fully in the social, cultural, economic and political life irrespective of their race, religion, colour of skin or origin. The positive attitude to multiculturalism plays a very important role in the fight against all forms of extremist action.
Some people have a negative attitude to multiculturalism as they believe that it erodes social stability and national cohesion. People's prejudices and fears may result into ethnocentrism or they may lead to racial discrimination, social conflicts and violence. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is more important than others and that its culture is superior to the culture of other groups. It occurs when one culture or nation places itself at the top of an imagined hierarchy of cultures and nations.
The United Kingdom has one of the highest immigration rates in the EU. Although white people make up over 90% of the UK population, there are also many other groups living in Great Britain. The largest ethnic group is Asian (4% of the population). This group includes people from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The other main ethnic groups are Afro-Caribbean, African, Arabic, and Chinese. In London, almost 30% of the population are Asian and black. The main reason why London has become a multicultural city is the long history of immigration to Britain which increased greatly after World War II. Immigrants were encouraged to come to Britain as the country needed many workers to rebuild its economy after the war. Now the children and grandchildren of the earlier immigrants are full members of British society. Immigrants come to Great Britain for many reasons: some of them look for a well-paid job and better life; some seek protection from poverty, military conflicts or political persecution. Almost every part of London is populated with a wide mixture of people from many different countries.
Talking about the United States we often use the metaphor 'melting pot' to emphasize that all the immigrant cultures have mixed and assimilated into American society. White Americans make up the majority of the US population (about 75%). Blacks or African Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives and other races make up 25% of the population. From 1880 to 1930, there was a huge growth in immigration to the United States. Today, the largest groups of immigrants come from Mexico, the Philippines, and other parts of Latin America and Asia.
Today behind many social and political conflicts there is a problem of cultural differences. That's why we need to create a harmonious integrated society where every member enjoys equal rights. Multiculturalism helps us build bridges between communities; it is the pledge of piece, understanding, harmony and wellbeing. Multiculturalism will help us create a united and tolerant culturally diverse society. As Bhikhu Parekh, a professor of political philosophy at the University of Westminster, said, 'Multiculturalism is not about shutting oneself up in a communal or cultural ghetto and leading a segregated and self-contained life. Rather it is about opening up oneself to others, learning from their insights and criticisms, and growing as a result into a richer and tolerant culture'.
| Смотреть далее | 19.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Love - What other people say about wonderful feeling - Любовь - Что другие люди говорят о прекрасном чувстве|
Love - What other people say about wonderful feeling - Любовь - Что другие люди говорят о прекрасном чувстве
There are a lot of definitions of love.
- Love is the poetry of the senses. (Honore de Balzac)
- Love is a canvas furnished by nature and embroidered by imagination. (Voltaire)
- Love is an act of endless forgiveness, a tender look which becomes a habit. (Peter Ustinov)
- Love is a game that two can play and both win. (Eva Gabor)
- Love is an irresistible desire to be irresistibly desired. (Robert Frost)
- Love is like war: easy to begin but very hard to stop. (H. L. Mencken)
- Love is being stupid together. (Paul Valery)
- Love is life. And if you miss love, you miss life. (Leo Buscaglia)
- Love is the beauty of the soul. (Saint Augustine)
| Смотреть далее | 18.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Quotations about love - Цитаты о любви|
Quotations about love - Цитаты о любви
- All love shifts and changes. I don't know if you can be wholeheartedly in love all the time. (Julie Andrews)
- Life is the flower for which love is the honey. (Victor Hugo)
- Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage. (Lao Tzu)
- Love does not dominate; it cultivates. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
- Love does not begin and end the way we seem to think it does. Love is a battle, love is a war; love is a growing up. (James A. Baldwin)
- True love is like ghosts, which everyone talks about and few have seen. (Francois de La Rochefoucauld)
- Love is always bestowed as a gift -freely, willingly and without expectation. We don't love to be loved; we love to love. (Leo Buscaglia)
- Take away love and our earth is a tomb. (Robert Browning)
- When love is not madness, it is not love. (Pedro Calderon de la Barca)
| Смотреть далее | 17.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Sonnet 148. O me! what eyes hath love put in my head - Cонет 148. О, как любовь мой изменила глаз!|
Sonnet 148. O me! What eyes hath love put in my head - Cонет 148. О, как любовь мой изменила глаз!
Oh, me! What kind of eyes has love put into my head that I don’t see anything accurately? Or if my eyes do see correctly, what’s happened to my judgment to make me wrongly criticize what they see? If the woman I love to look at is beautiful, why does the rest of the world say she’s not? If she’s not, then a person in love doesn’t see as accurately as others. No—how can a lover see right? Oh, how can a lover’s eye work properly when it’s so distressed by staying awake and crying? It’s no wonder then that I’m wrong about what I see; the sun itself doesn’t see anything until the sky is clear. Oh, ingenious love, you keep me blind with tears so I won’t discover my lover’s foul faults, as I would if my eyes worked properly.
by William Shakespeare
| Смотреть далее | 16.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Топик Love Is Life - Любовь это жизнь|
Топик Love Is Life - Любовь это жизнь
What is love? Even in this advanced age of science, when people conquer space, do the shopping via the Internet, clone animals and transplant organs, they still don't fully understand the nature and purpose of love. There are numerous definitions of love. For example, the dictionary defines love as 'a strong feeling of fondness for another person, especially between members of a family or close friends'. Love is a mixture of complex and extremely powerful feelings. It is a major theme in philosophy, literature, music, poetry and cinematography.
A great number of scientists and psychologists have been trying to understand the essence of love. Robert Sternberg, an American psychologist, has proposed a triangular theory of love. To his mind love is made of some combination of intimacy, passion and commitment. According to Robert Sternberg, intimacy 'encompasses feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness'. Passion 'encompasses drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation'. Commitment is 'the decision to remain with another, and in the long term, the shared achievements and plans made with that other'. Robert Sternberg has affirmed that 'passion is the quickest to develop, and the quickest to fade. Intimacy develops more slowly, and commitment more gradually still'. Different stages and types of love can be explained by different combinations of these three elements. Robert Sternberg has also distinguished such types of love as nonlove, liking or friendship, infatuated love (pure passion), empty love (commitment without intimacy or passion), romantic love (emotional and physical bonds), companionate love (intimate, non-passionate love), fatuous love (passion without intimacy), consummate love (perfect love).
Scientists affirm that love has a chemical basis. Recent studies in neuroscience have shown that when people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals that stimulate the brain's pleasure center and cause increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. This stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years. So it is not unusual that passion which characterizes the first stage of love disappears with the passing of time and other feelings such as respect, tenderness and affection set in. Only true love stands the test of time. People who are truly in love and who have been together for years don't grow apart but draw closer to one another.
Studies have also indicated that brain scans of people who are in love resemble to those with a mental illness. Scientists say that love deactivates the brain regions associated with negative emotions, with social judgment and with judging other people's intentions and emotions. That is why people in love are often unable to make critical judgments and they look at their partner through rose-coloured spectacles.
What is the secret of long-term relationships? Why do some couples live long and happily together while others separate? Maybe the secret is to try to understand and forgive each other and to feel the responsibility for your partner's life. Shared interests unite people while sincerity and mutual understanding form emotional closeness. And of course it is very important to have confidence in each other as in true love there is no room for doubt and jealousy.
| Смотреть далее | 15.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Топик Female intuition - Женская интуиция|
Female intuition - Женская интуиция
Popular myth suggests that women are innately more intuitive than men. Men (so the myth goes) are rational thinkers, women are emotional feelers. In fact, research conducted at the University of Hertfordshire found that not only were male volunteers slightly more accurate at recognising a fake smile, female volunteers tended to rate themselves more highly on their intuitive skills. In conflicting research, psychologist Judith Hall found women to have greater non-verbal sensitivity: they were better able to read a situation without verbal clues. Indeed, other research has suggested that the more intuitive we believe we are, the less accurate our judgments tend to be. Perhaps believing the hype about female intuition could in fact, reduce the overall accuracy of your decision making.
Sarah Wilson The Guardian, Saturday 7 March 2009
| Смотреть далее | 14.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Топик Should you trust your intuition? - Доверяете ли вы своей интуиции?|
Should you trust your intuition? - Доверяете ли вы своей интуиции?
Professor Guy Claxton, author of Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind, claims we have three basic mind speeds: slow, contemplative thought; deliberate thought; and intuition, which is faster than logical thought and may be more efficient. There are thousands of cues in our environment that we might not notice consciously, but nonetheless may inform our intuitive choices. Our impulse might be to dismiss our intuition, but, in some cases, relying on instinct is not only faster, it may also give us more satisfaction. Studies show that when we are asked to make a choice without having to explain it, we tend to be happier with that choice four weeks later than if we were asked to give a rational explanation.
| Смотреть далее | 13.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Is It Worth Relying On Our Intuition? - Стоит ли верить нашей интуиции?|
Топик Is It Worth Relying On Our Intuition? - Стоит ли верить нашей интуиции?
People often use their judgment - the ability to make decisions that are based on careful consideration of facts, principles, etc. We often make plans and analyze the situation before doing something. As the English proverb says, 'Measure thrice and cut once'. But sometimes we make right decisions and good choices without logical reasoning or learned skill. Such power of understanding is called intuition. Intuition has been the subject of study in psychology, as well as a topic of interest in the supernatural. 'Intuition is a knowing, a sensing that is beyond the conscious understanding'.
Students, doctors, housewives, teachers, plumbers and stockbrokers all use intuitive judgment. Everyone does. Minor or major decisions are often made based on instinct and feeling, even when the reason for the feeling is unclear. Intuition is a natural faculty which everybody has. But not everybody recognizes and trusts his intuitive information.
Intuition is very close to insight - a sudden, clear, but not always complete understanding. Intuition and insight are important elements in creativity, the human response to an ever changing environment. Both insight and intuition are in the realm of the unconscious.
Some people don't believe that it is worth relying on intuition. They think that it is eccentric and irrational, but sometimes our inner voice is an excellent guide. Even Einstein arrived at his biggest contribution through intuition. The famous scientist said that 'the only real valuable thing is intuition'. Of course, there are many situations where analysis and rationality are superior to intuition. Intuition may not be helpful in determining another's personality. The situation may not give the observer an opportunity to see the traits that would indicate the personality. But there are many situations when our intuition can help us find the right answer to the most complicated question.
We sometimes have an impulse that we should or shouldn't do something. For example, our intuition silently prompts us that it is better not to trust a particular person or not to go to some place. And these sudden decisions that are difficult to explain turn out to be the best ones. We may feel very enthusiastic about some project, without really knowing why. Or we may be sure that our plans are going to fail but we don't understand the reason for our apprehensions.
There are some cases when intuition saves people's lives. For example a person is to go on a business trip. But suddenly he begins feeling some inexplicable fear and discomfort and makes up his mind to buy a railway ticket instead of going by plane. And later he finds out that the plane he was to fly by has crashed. At the same time we shouldn't confuse intuition with emotions, fantasies and prejudices. Not every spontaneous emotion can be interpreted as intuition.
Some scientists say that it is possible to develop intuition. We need to exercise and educate it. It is very important to become more conscious of our intuition and how it operates and to analyze the situations when it helped us. Making mistakes and learning from them is also essential to developing your sixth sense. The guiding role of intuition should not be ignored or underestimated. It helps us pattern our behaviour and make right decisions in uncertain situations and unknown areas.
| Смотреть далее | 12.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Афоризмы и пословицы о спорте|
Афоризмы и пословицы о спорте
- I don't know anything that builds the will to win better than competitive sports.
Richard M. Nixon
- Я не знаю ничего, что воспитывало бы волю к победе лучше, чем спортивные состязания.
- Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. Serious sport is war minus the shooting.
- Серьёзный спорт не имеет ничего общего с честной игрой. Серьёзный спорт - это война минус убийство.
- Talent wins games, but teamwork and intelligence wins championships.
- Талант добывает победу в игре, но чемпионство добывают команда и интеллект.
- Academe, n.: An ancient school where morality and philosophy were taught. Academy, n.: A modern school where football is taught.
- В древности академия - место, где обучали этике и философии. Сегодня академия - место, где обучают футболу.
- All sports for all people.
Pierre de Coubertin
- Спорт для всех людей.
Пьер де Кубертен
- Baseball has the great advantage over cricket of being sooner ended.
George Bernard Shaw
- Бейсбол имеет большое преимущество перед крикетом - быстрее заканчивается.
Джордж Бернард Шоу
- Golf is a good walk spoiled.
- Гольф - это испорченная прогулка.
- I regard golf as an expensive way of playing marbles.
Gilbert K. Chesterton
- Я считаю гольф дорогой игрой в шарики (детская игра).
- I don't understand American football at all. It looks like all-in wrestling with crash helmets.
- Я совершенно не понимаю американский футбол. Это выглядит как вольная борьба в шлемах.
Пословицы о спорте
- A sound mind in a sound body. - В здоровом теле здоровый дух.
- After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. - После обеда посиди, после ужина милю пройди.
- The best of the sport is to do the deed and to say nothing. - Лучший спорт - совершать поступки без лишних слов.
- In sports and journeys men are known. - Люди познаются в спорте и в путешествиях.
- It's not whether you win or lose that matters, it's how you play the game. - Неважно, выигрываешь ты или проигрываешь, важно, как ты играешь.
- Stumbling is not falling. - Споткнуться - не упасть.
- Sport to the cat is death to the mouse. - Спорт для кошки - смерть для мыши.
- War is a sport of kings. - Война - спорт королей.
| Смотреть далее | 01.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
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