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Спорт в английских идиомах

Спорт в английских идиомах

  1. a fishing expedition - попытка получить информацию, сбор компрометирующей информации
  2. ball and chain - шутл. супруга, жена (ядро на цепи; чугунный шар, прикованный к ноге каторжника)
  3. ball boy - мальчик, подбирающий и подающий мячи (на корте)
  4. ball of fortune - игрушка судьбы
  5. field of honour - место дуэли; поле битвы
  6. football widow - шутл. "футбольная вдова" (женщина, которая во время футбольных соревнований оказывается полностью лишённой внимания со стороны своего мужа - футбольного фаната)
  7. football firm - брит., разг. банда футбольных фанатов
  8. football - амер., полит., жарг. "ядерный чемоданчик" (портфель с секретными кодами при президенте США; для управления ядерным арсеналом страны)
  9. it is not cricket - не по правилам
  10. on the ball - амер., разг. расторопный; толковый
  11. out in left field - не из той оперы, не по делу
  12. political football - объект политических манипуляций, спекуляций
  13. race meeting - брит. день скачек
  14. rat race - неодобр. "крысиные бега", бешеная погоня за богатством, успехом; ожесточённая конкуренция
  15. sail through - легко преодолеть (что-л.), пройти без потерь
  16. sail into - разг. набрасываться на что-л., налетать
  17. skate over / (a)round - избегать; касаться вскользь (какой-л. темы и т. п.)
  18. sports day - день спортивных состязаний (в школах; обычно с приглашением родителей в качестве зрителей)
  19. the ball is in your court - "мяч теперь на твоём поле", теперь твоя очередь действовать, теперь всё зависит от тебя
  20. to be in the swim - быть в курсе дела; быть в центре событий
  21. to take in sail - умерить пыл; сбавить спеси
  22. to make sail - уходить, убираться восвояси
  23. to strike sail - признать свою неправоту; признать себя побеждённым
  24. to skate on thin ice - скользить по тонкому льду, ходить по краю пропасти
  25. to get one's skates on - брит., разг. торопиться, поторапливаться
  26. to be in the race - австрал., разг. иметь возможность, шанс
  27. to race away - уст. промотать на скачках (состояние и т. п.)
  28. to move the goalpost - менять правила по ходу игры
  29. to have all bases covered - разг. предусмотреть все возможные нюансы, случайности
  30. to get to first base - амер., разг. сделать первый (успешный) шаг к достижению какой-л. цели
  31. to ball the jack - амер., разг. вести себя опрометчиво, рискованно, не обращая ни на что внимания; очень быстро ехать, гнать
  32. to have the ball at one's feet - быть господином положения; иметь шансы на успех
  33. to strike the ball under the line - потерпеть неудачу
  34. to swim against the tide / stream - плыть против течения
  35. to catch / take the ball before the bound - действовать слишком поспешно
  36. to get / set / start the ball rolling - начинать
  37. to keep up the ball - поддерживать разговор; продолжать делать что-л.
  38. to change one's base - амер., разг. отступать, удирать
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Топик Education in the US - Образование в Соединенных Штатах

Education in the US

The interplay of local, state, and national programs and policies is particularly evident in the field of education. Historically, education has been considered the province of the state and local governments.

Of the more than 3,000 colleges and universities, the academies of the armed services are among the few federal institutions. (The federal government also administers, among others, the College of the Virgin Islands.) For years, however, the federal government has been involved in education at all levels, beginning in 1862 with the grant of public lands to the states for the purpose of establishing colleges of agricultural and mechanical arts.

Additionally, the federal government supports school lunch programs, administers Indian education, makes research grants to universities, underwrites loans to college students, and finances education for veterans.

Whether the government should also give assistance to private and religious schools has been widely debated. The Supreme Court has ruled that direct assistance to religious schools is barred by the First Amendment to the Constitution, which states that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion" although this has not been extended to the use of textbooks and so-called supplementary educational centres.

Although responsibility for elementary education still rests primarily with local government, it is increasingly affected by state and national policies. The 1964 Civil Rights Act, for example, required federal agencies to discontinue financial aid to school districts that are not racially integrated.

Trends in education have been toward being more responsive to the needs of a complex society: preschool programs; classes in the community; summer and night schools; and increased facilities for exceptional children. Such programs, however, have been only partially successful.

Образование в Соединенных Штатах

Взаимосвязь программ и политик штатов, местных и национальных, особенно заметна в сфере образования. Исторически образование рассматривалось как сфера компетенции местных правительств и правительства штатов.

Из более чем 3000 колледжей и университетов в федеральном подчинении находятся военные академии и еще несколько учреждений. (Федеральное правительство администрирует и колледж Виргинских островов). И все-таки, в течение многих лет федеральное правительство принимало участие в образовании на всех уровнях, начиная с 1862 года, когда был издан указ о предоставлении государственной земли для организации сельскохозяйственных и ремесленных колледжей.

Кроме того, федеральное правительство оказывает поддержку программе школьных обедов, руководит образованием индейцев, предоставляет гранты на проведение научно-исследовательских работ университетам, предоставляет ссуды студентам колледжей и финансирует образование ветеранов.

Широко обсуждается вопрос, должно ли правительство помогать также частным и религиозным школам. Верховный Суд постановил, что предоставление непосредственной помощи религиозным школам запрещено Первой Поправкой к конституции, в которой говорится, что «Конгресс не должен принимать законы относительно религиозных учреждений», хотя этот запрет не распространяется на использование учебников и так называемые дополнительные центры образования.

Невзирая на то, что за начальное образование отвечает главным образом местное правительство, оно поддается все большему влиянию политики штатов и национальной политики. Закон о гражданских правах 1964 года, например, вынуждал федеральные службы прекращать финансирование школ, где дети разделялись по расовому признаку.

Современное образование нацелено на удовлетворение потребностей современного общества: программы дошкольной подготовки; занятия в группах; летние и вечерние школы; создание особых условий для одаренных детей. Но нельзя сказать, что все эти программы успешно воплощаются.

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14 случаев употребления предлога of

14 случаев употребления предлога of

14 случаев употребления предлога of1. совместное употребление притяжательного и родительного падежей:
He is a friend of Tom's. - Он друг (один из друзей) Тома.
This is a play of Shaw's. - Это пьеса (одна из пьес) Шоу.
Is she a friend of your mother's? - Она подруга (одна из друзей) вашей матери?

2. авторство:
the phonograph of Thompson - фонограф Томпсона
the stories of/by Rudyard Kipling - рассказы Редьярда Киплинга
the radio of Popov - радио Попова

3. принадлежность кому-либо, владение чем-либо:
the garden of my neighbour- 'сад моего соседа
the nest of the bird - гнездо птицы
the owner of the house - владелец дома, домовладелец

4. родственные, дружеские, деловые и другие связи, выраженные существительным в общем падеже + of + притяжательное местоимение в независимой (абсолютной) форме:
This pupil is a friend of his. - Этот ученик - его друг (один из его друзей).
She is a friend of ours. - Она наш друг (одна из наших друзей).
It's no business of yours. - Это не ваше дело. Это вас не касается.

5. возраст человека:
a man of forty - мужчина сорока лет

6. составная часть чего-либо:
the roof of the car - крыша автомобиля
a big body of water - большой водоем
the leg of the chair - ножка стула

7. количественная характеристика; при переводе на русский употребляются предлоги «в», «из»:
a family of ten - семья из десяти человек
a ship of 500 tons - судно водоизмещением 500 тонн

8. состав, содержание или структура:
a collection of books - коллекция книг
a bunch of keys - связка ключей
the structure of the molecule - строение молекулы
a book of poems - сборник стихов
the structure of society - структура общества

9. запах, вкус; переводится на русский творительным падежом:
The room smelled of bread. - В комнате пахло хлебом.
There is a smell of corruption/treachery here. - Здесь пахнет коррупцией/предательством.
Here is a smell of cooking/flowers/fresh paint. - Здесь пахнет кухней/цветами/непросохшей краской.

10. звание, титул и т.п.; передается русским родительным падежом:
Doctor of Science - доктор наук
Master of Arts - магистр искусств/гуманитарных наук

11. направление, расстояние, удаленность от какого-либо пункта; переводится с помощью предлогов «от», «к»:
to the south of Moscow - к югу от Москвы
a two miles east of the port - в двух милях к востоку от порта
My house is within (in) walking distance of the school. - От моего дома до школы можно дойти пешком.

12. в значении содержания, наполненности:
full of water - полный воды
plenty of time - много времени
full of energy - полный энергии, энергичный
the love of a mother - любовь матери, материнская любовь

13. название месяца после числа:
the first of January - первое января
the second of July - второе июля

14. в качестве приложения (определения, выраженного именем существительным собственным):
the city of Paris - город Париж
the month of December - месяц декабрь

Смотреть далее | 31.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Басня The Boy Who Cried Wolf - Мальчик, который кричал Волк

Басня The Boy Who Cried Wolf - Мальчик, который кричал "Волк"

There once was a shepherd boy who was bored as he sat on the hillside watching the village sheep. To amuse himself he took a great breath and sang out, "Wolf! Wolf! The Wolf is chasing the sheep!"

The villagers came running up the hill to help the boy drive the wolf away. But when they arrived at the top of the hill, they found no wolf. The boy laughed at the sight of their angry faces.
"Don't cry 'wolf, shepherd boy," said the villagers, "when there's no wolf!" They went grumbling back down the hill.

Later, the boy sang out again, "Wolf. Wolf. The wolf is chasing the sheep!" To his naughty delight, he watched the villagers run up the hill to help him drive the wolf away.

When the villagers saw no wolf they sternly said, "Save your frightened song for when there is really something wrong! Don't cry 'wolf when there is NO wolf"

But the boy just grinned and watched them go grumbling down the hill once more.

Later, he saw a REAL wolf prowling about his flock. Alarmed, he leaped to his feet and sang out as loudly as he could, "Wolf Wolf"

But the villagers thought he was trying to fool them again, and so they didn't come.

At sunset, everyone wondered why the shepherd boy hadn't returned to the village with their sheep. They went up the hill to find the boy. They found him weeping.
"There really was a wolf here! The flock has scattered! I cried out, "Wolf" Why didn't you come?"

An old man tried to comfort the boy as they walked back to the village.

"We'll help you look for the lost sheep in the morning," he said, putting his arm around the youth, "Nobody believes a liar...even when he is telling the truth!"

[ перевод ]

Жил был когда-то пастух, которому было скучно, когда он сидел на склоне холма, наблюдая отарой овец. Для того, чтобы развлечь себя, он взял набрал в легкие много воздуха и запел, "Волк! Волк! Волк гонится за овцой!"

Жители деревни побежали на холм, чтобы помочь мальчику прогнать волка прочь. Но когда они собрались на вершине холма, они не нашли волка. Мальчик рассмеялся, когда увидел их сердитые лица.

"Не кричи 'Волк', когда нет никакого волка!" сказали емусельские жители, и они ушли ворча обратно вниз по склону.

Позже, мальчик началь петь снова, "Волк. Волк. Волк гонится за овцами!". К его восторгу, он опять наблюдал, как жители бегуть в гору, чтобы помочь ему справиться с волком.

Когда сельские жители еще раз не увидели волка они строго сказали: "Прибереги песню про опасность для случая, когда действительно что-то не так! Не кричи Волк, когда его нет".

Но мальчик просто улыбнулся и смотрел, как они снова пошли ворча вниз по склону холма .

Позже, мальчик увидел настоящего волка, который тащит в своей пасти овцу. Встревоженный, он вскочил на ноги и запел так громко, как он мог, "Волк, Волк"

Но жители думали, что он пытается обмануть их снова, и поэтому решили не идти.

На закате, жители задавались вопросом, почему пастушок не вернулся в деревню со своими овцами. Они поднялись на холм, чтобы найти мальчика. Они нашли его плачущим.

"Тут действительно был волк ! Стадо разбрелось! Я кричал, "Волк". Почему вы не пришли?"

Один старик пытался успокоить мальчика, когда они шли обратно в деревню.

"Мы поможем тебе найти погибших овец утром," сказал он, положив руку на юношу, "Запомни: Никто не верит, лжецу... даже когда он говорит правду!".

Смотреть далее | 31.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Топик Is It Worth Lying? - Стоить ли врать?

Топик Is It Worth Lying? - Стоить ли врать?

Is It Worth Lying? - Стоить ли врать?There is hardly a person in the world who can say that he or she has never told a lie. Lying is quite natural and people often do it in case of emergency, intentionally or even without any reason. People are not born with a capacity to lie. They begin to do it at the age of three and the older they get, the more resourceful and sophisticated they become. Many philosophers such as Saint Augustine, Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant condemned all lying. They were convinced that 'one must be murdered, suffer torture, or endure any other hardship, rather than lie, even if the only way to protect oneself is to lie'. Immanuel Kant said that 'by a lie, a man annihilates his dignity as a man.'

A lie is something you say that you know is untrue with the intention to deceive other people. There are different reasons for telling a lie. One may do it with the intention to maintain a secret or to save his or her face, to derive some benefit or to avoid a punishment, to get out of an awkward situation or to help another person and what not. Many people are fond of exaggerating some facts or lying for fun.

There are different types of lies from white lies to perjury. A white lie does not harm anyone and it is usually told in order to avoid hurting someone's feelings. It is often used to avoid offense, such as complimenting something one finds not very beautiful or attractive or saying that you like a present even if it is not true. A white lie is a part of good manners as sometimes it is rude to say exactly what you think. When a person does not tell the whole truth about something such kind of lie is called half-truth. A bold-faced lie is one which is told when it is obvious to everybody that it is a lie. For example, a person who has been caught red-handed by the police and denies that he has stolen the money. Perjury is the crime of telling a lie after promising to tell the truth in a court of law.

In fact it is difficult to imagine the world without lie. Lie is everywhere: on TV, on the radio, in newspapers, in the street and even at home. Everyday people have to face misinformation, hoax, fabrication, propaganda, puffery, forgery, etc. That is why many of us have become distrustful and suspicious and we don't believe most advertisements, commercials, speeches and promises. If one doesn't want to be deceived or to become a victim of fraud, he or she should take into consideration people's behaviour and body language.

It is possible to distinguish a lie by facial expression, movements, tone of voice and other methods. Some people are sure that lies can be detected through both verbal and nonverbal means. Scientists say that lying takes longer than telling the truth. So if a person hesitates before answering a question or makes a long pause, he is probably going to tell a lie. A liar may avoid eye contact, turn his head away, stammer or blush. A liar usually has a stiff expression and a forced smile. A person who feels guilty may speak too much, adding unnecessary details to convince his interlocutor. A liar feels uncomfortable and is often eager to change the subject. This knowledge is especially helpful for police, security experts, businessmen, politicians and employers. But one should remember that there is no absolutely reliable sign of lying.

Polygraph measures the physiological stress a person endures while he or she gives statements or answers questions. It is well-known that lying causes bodily changes. Polygraph measures the suspect's heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and respiration. If there is increased activity in these areas, the suspect might be lying. The accuracy of this method is questionable as this machine can be deceived. That is why polygraph results are not admissible as court evidence. The fact is that no machine, or expert can detect a lie with 100% accuracy.

Sometimes telling a lie can be essential if it helps save another person's life. But sometimes lying makes things worse, especially after it has been discovered. Discovery of a lie may spoil one's reputation or lead to social or legal sanctions. Besides you can't lie all the time. One shouldn't forget the saying, 'Liars should have long memories'.

Смотреть далее | 30.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

The Letters Written By The Teens Who Have Problems With Their Parents - Письма, написанные подростками, которые имеют проблемы с родителями

The Letters Written By The Teens Who Have Problems With Their Parents - Письма, написанные подростками, которые имеют проблемы с родителями

  • Emily, 15
    My parents are too harden me. 'We have great difficulties with understanding each other. Every day I hear ''Don't listen to this music', 'Don't talk to this girl - she is spoilt', ''Don't invite your friends' ... Sometimes I feel irritated and we quarrel. I'm really tired of such a don't-do-it way of upbringing. My parents are convinced that everything I do is wrong. To I really deserve such an attitude?
  • Helen, 16
    My parents don't understand me! 'They treat me as if I were a kid though I am already 16! I want to go clubbing and bowling, I want to meet my friends and go to different parties. 'But they tell me to think more about school and my studies. 'When I go somewhere I have to be at home not later than 10 p.m. It's ridiculous and all my friends laugh at me. My father almost had a stroke when he learnt that I had a boyfriend. How can I make them understand that I'm not a child any more?
  • Michael, 15
    My classmates bully me. I don't know why. Maybe because I'm shy and a bit fat or wear spectacles. I told my parents about my problem but they said it was quite all right and that I had to patch things up myself. They seem to be absolutely indifferent to what's going on in my life. They don't care about what I feel or what I want. I'd like to become a computer programmer, but dad says I must become a lawyer. But what about my dreams? I'm torn between wanting to take a stand, and not wanting to upset my parents.
Смотреть далее | 29.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Generation Gap: Reality or a Psychological Prejudice - Конфликт поколений: реальность или психологическое предубеждение

Generation Gap: Reality or a Psychological Prejudice - Конфликт поколений: реальность или психологическое предубеждение

Generation Gap: RealityTo my mind generation gap is rather reality than a psychological prejudice. It has always been a topical problem and it still remains urgent nowadays.

So what does a generation gap mean? It is a popular term used to describe big differences between people of a younger generation and their elders. This can be defined as occurring 'when older and younger people do not understand each other because of their different experiences, opinions, habits and behavior'. The term first came into prominence in Western countries during the 1960s, and described the cultural differences between the Baby Boomers and their parents. Although some generational differences have existed throughout history, during this era differences between the two generations grew significantly in comparison to previous times, particularly with respect to such matters as musical tastes, fashion, drug use, culture and politics.

Nowadays you will hardly find a boy or a girl satisfied with their parents. Neither will you find a grown-up, a parent not grumbling over 'younger generation' of their children. Pop music, ultra-modern clothes, noisy parties and children's wish to have more freedom become a stumbling-block on the way of mutual understanding between adults and their offspring and help foster differences between parents and teenagers. So it seems that in most families parents don't understand their children and children don't understand their parents.

According to the older generation teenagers are lazy, carefree, ungrateful, impolite and rude. They wear ridiculous clothes, listen to awful music and all they think about is parties, dates, friends and entertainment. Teenagers have very little responsibility and very few problems. But is it really so? If we look inside the mind of a teenager, we will see a very different picture. Teenagers are greatly worried about a great number of things: their appearance, relations with friends, parents and teachers, the way other people (especially their peers) treat them. They suffer from pimples, bullies, problems at school, misunderstanding with their boyfriend/girlfriend, lack of self-confidence, etc. Teenagers often don't know what they are good at and their future seems to be rather vague. Every day they face a lot of stressful situations and feel depressed. Besides they have constant pressure from betters and elders as to how they should act, behave, look and feel.

There are a lot of books and films devoted to the problem of the generation gap. One of such films is 'Freaky Friday' (2003). The wide generation gap between Tess Coleman (Jamie Lee Curtis) and her teenage daughter Anna (Lindsay Lohan) is more than evident. They simply cannot understand each other's preferences. They have absolutely different views on clothes, hair, music, duties and even people. On a Friday morning the mother and the daughter switch bodies. As they adjust with their new personalities, they begin to understand each other more and eventually they gain respect for the other's point of view. It is 'selfless love' that changes them back.

But of course there is no magic in real life, that's why there should be some other way to bridge the gap between parents and their children. To my mind communication is the best way to solve the problem. The more time adults and children spend together, the more they talk and discuss different things the better they understand each other. It is very important to be selfless and open-minded, patient and sincere. Despite the great changes in the electronic and technological environment in the last several decades, a defined gap does not separate today's generations as it did in the sixties and seventies. So the 'generation gap' can disappear. If we are a little wiser, children will find a key to the heart of their parents and vice versa.

Смотреть далее | 28.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Friendship: A Single Soul Dwelling in Two Bodies - Дружба: одна душа живущая в двух телах

Friendship: A Single Soul Dwelling in Two Bodies - Дружба: одна душа живущая в двух телах

Single Soul Dwelling in Two BodiesFriendship is considered one of the central human experiences and for many people it may be as important as love. It is an essential component of many people's daily lives. It is rather difficult to describe the main features of friendship in one phrase. Friendship means devotion, faith, complete trust and unselfishness. A friend is a person who understands and supports you in times of need or crisis, shows kindness and sympathy, has similar tastes, interests and life philosophies.

Your friend is your helper, adviser and supporter. You can always trust him and share your hardships with him. Friends are absolutely disinterested and they help you without being asked to and without the expectation that you will have to repay them. A true friend can always acknowledge his fault if he is wrong and apologize. Besides, a true friend can forgive you if you have hurt his feelings or if you have given him a lot of trouble.

In Greek and Roman times, friendship was thought of as being an essential constituent of both a good society and a good life. It was supposed to nurture wisdom and happiness. Aristotle, a Greek philosopher and scientist, believed that friendship could fall into three categories: it could be based on utility, pleasure or goodness. In its latter state, Aristotle described it as being 'a single soul dwelling in two bodies'. During the time of the Roman Empire, Cicero had his own beliefs on friendship. He thought that in order to have a true friendship with someone there must be all honesty and truth. If there isn't, then this isn't a true friendship.

There are different types of friendship. For example not every friend is called your best or close friend. Your best friend is a person with whom your share strong interpersonal ties. Your soulmate is someone who is considered the ultimate, true, and eternal half of your soul. An acquaintance is a person with whom you don't share emotional ties, for example your coworker. A person with whom you share a 'postal' relationship and communicate through letters is your pen pal. Nowadays it is very popular to make friends online. Friendship that takes place over the Internet is called Internet friendship.

Most people have friends, regardless of gender, age, education, financial position and residency. But they tend to form friendships with representatives of their own social circle and with people of their own age. There is often a gap between people with different educational level, life experience and financial standing. In other words most people understand friendship as a union of the equal. However some of us have friends who are much younger or older than we are, who are poorer or wealthier and whose level of education is much higher or lower than ours.

Some reserved and shy people find making friends rather difficult. Besides, friendship means rendering a service to your friend from time to time, telling the truth and exhibiting loyalty. It takes time and effort, but true friendship is worth of it. It is stressful to live in the world of strangers, that's why people need friends. They give us a sense of being protected, emotional comfort and moral support. Having no friends can be emotionally damaging in some cases. As the proverb says, 'A true friend is the best possession'.

Смотреть далее | 27.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Colours and their Associations - Цвета и их ассоциации

Colours and their Associations - Цвета и их ассоциации

Colours their AssociationsIn all cultures, different colours have different associations. They have symbolism and colour meanings. People respond to colours in different ways. The colour produces a certain physiological (connected with mind and body) and psychological (connected with history, culture and education) effect on a person. People's reactions to colours are instinctive and subconscious and certain colours are tied with certain notions (for example, pink is considered to be a romantic colour). Cool colours such as blue, green, white, grey, and silver tend to have a calming effect. On the one hand they are cold and impersonal. On the other hand the cool colours are comforting and nurturing. Blue has a calming effect and it can help you sleep. That is why blue is a good colour for bedrooms. However, scientists say that too much blue could dampen spirits. That is why the expressions 'to feel blue' or 'to get the blues' mean 'to feel sad, unhappy, depressed'. In many cultures blue is significant in religious beliefs, brings peace, or is believed to keep the bad spirits away. Blue, especially darker blue, is associated with intelligence, stability, unity, and conservatism. Navy blue is a common colour for uniforms such as those worn by sailors and the police. In Iran, blue is the colour of mourning while in the West the bride traditionally wears something blue to bring her luck. A deep royal blue or azure conveys richness and a touch of superiority.

Green is associated with life, spring, growth, renewal, health, and environment. At the same time green means jealousy or envy and inexperience. Green is known to calm the nerves and soothe emotions. It is the national colour of Ireland. Coupled with red green is a Christmas colour.

Grey is a neutral, balanced and conservative colour. Grey seldom evokes strong emotion although some people find it cloudy or moody. In the US and UK, grey is connected with being dull and boring. Like black, grey is used as a colour of mourning as well as a colour of formality.

White is purity, cleanliness, and virginity. In most Western countries women wear long white dresses when they get married. It is a brilliant colour that can cause headaches and that can be blinding. In the East, it's the colour of mourning and funerals. Some cultures considered white to be the colour of royalty or of deities.

Silver is cool like grey but livelier and more playful. It often symbolizes riches, just as gold does. Silver can be glamorous and distinguished. The colour silver can be earthy, natural or sleek and elegant.

Warm colours fill us with joy and energy. Red, yellow, or orange can create excitement or even anger. Warm colours convey emotions from optimism to violence. In nature, warm colors represent change as in the changing of the seasons, the sunrise or the sunset.

Red is a hot and strong colour that evokes various emotions from passionate love to strong violence. Red is the colour of both Cupid and the devil. Red heart shapes and red roses represent romantic love. Studies show that red raises blood pressure. Red is often associated with power, that is why it is traditional to welcome a king, queen, president, celebrities and VIPs to a place by having a red carpet for them to walk on. Flashing red lights denote danger or emergency. In some cultures, red symbolizes purity, joy, and celebration. Red is the colour of happiness and prosperity in China. Red is often worn by brides in the East while it is the colour of mourning in South Africa.

Pink is a softer red. In some cultures, such as the US and the UK, pink is the colour that is worn by women and girls. It represents 'sugar and spice and everything nice'. Most people consider pink to be a feminine, delicate colour.

Yellow is associated with sunshine. On the one hand it symbolizes happiness, cheerfulness and joy. On the other hand yellow is the colour of cowardice and deceit. If someone is 'yellow' it means he is a coward. Yellow was the colour of mourning in Egypt and actors of the Middle Ages wore yellow to signify the dead. Yet yellow has also represented courage (in Japan), merchants (in India), and peace.

Gold is the colour of riches and extravagance. As gold is a precious metal, the colour gold is associated with wealth and prosperity. In ancient Egypt, gold was the colour of the Sun god and the symbol of power.

Orange is vibrant. It denotes energy, warmth, and the sun. Orange can be found in nature in the changing leaves of autumn, the setting sun, and citrus fruit. Orange brings up images of autumn leaves, pumpkins, and Halloween. It is a colour of change between the heat of summer and the cool of winter.

Black is conservative, serious and conventional. It can also be mysterious and sophisticated. It is typically worn at funerals to show sadness and respect in most Western countries. Black is associated with death and evil (black magic). Black, especially combined with orange is the colour of Halloween. Black clothes are often worn to social occasions in the evening.

Brown is a natural, down-to-earth colour. It is found in nature: in earth, wood, and stone. Brown symbolizes wholesomeness and earthiness. It also represents steadfastness, simplicity, friendliness, dependability, and health.

It is difficult to imagine the world without colours. They surround us everywhere and constitute an important part of our lives. Colours help people communicate non-verbally. Besides, colours make our lives brighter and influence our emotions. Life without colours would be dull and uninteresting.

Смотреть далее | 26.03.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

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