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|Топик Multiracial Families - Межрасовые семьи|
Multiracial Families - Межрасовые семьи
In Western culture, a typical family usually consists of a couple with their biological children. But some couples can't have their own children for different reasons and they choose to build a family through adoptions. Infertility is the main reason why men and women want to adopt children. Some couples have compassion for poor parentless children and adopt them for humanitarian reasons. Some believe that it is more responsible to take care of indigent children than to give birth to their own children. Some have to resort to adoption because of health problems.
Adoption isn't just for childless people. Many families have biological children and choose to adopt as well. There are millions of children in the world in need of loving families and permanent homes.
Nowadays the growing number of men and women adopt children from other countries including Third World countries. In recent decades international adoptions have become increasingly popular. International adoption means adopting a child from a foreign country. Many people are eager to adopt children and since there is more demand than supply within the country for adoptions, they are looking overseas to adopt. Adopting children from foreign countries couples hope that their children's natural parents will not interfere in their life. Most adopted children come from Ethiopia, China, Russia, Guatemala, South Korea and other countries. For example, Americans have adopted more than 200,000 children from overseas in the past 15 years.
There are still many people who are skeptical about adoption. Some people are concerned about the genetic quality of adopted children and they believe that adoptees are predisposed to drug and alcohol problems as well as to behavior problems. Some adopted children have histories of maltreatment, physical and sexual abuse. Other people think that the absence of biological ties complicates parent-child relationships.
The mass media is the primary source of information about adoption and it plays a role in the increased interest in international adoptions. Every time a Hollywood celebrity adopts a child, there is a great increase in enquires from people wishing to adopt. Among the celebrities who have adopted children from abroad are Josephine Baker, Mia Farrow, Dan Marino, Sharon Stone, Ewan McGregor, Meg Ryan, James Caviezel, and Julie Andrews. In the 2000s, the couples Angelina Jolie/Brad Pitt and Madonna/Guy Ritchie drew public attention by adopting several children from Third World countries.
In 2002, Jolie adopted her first child, seven-month-old Maddox Chivan. The star decided to apply for adoption after she had visited Cambodia twice. Jolie adopted a six-month-old girl from Ethiopia, Zahara Marley in 2005. In 2006 the famous actress gave birth to a daughter, Shiloh Nouvel, in Swakopmund, Namibia. In 2007, Jolie adopted a three-year-old boy from Vietnam, Pax Thien. Jolie gave birth to twins, a boy, Knox Leon, and a girl, Vivienne Marcheline in Nice, France in 2008. In her interview for People Magazine Angelina Jolie has said, 'Most of the night I just thought about how quickly I want to adopt again. It's a very special thing. There's something about making a choice, waking up and travelling somewhere and finding your family. ... There are so many wonderful places. There are many parts of Asia, Africa, South America, so sooner or later I'll end up everywhere, I'm sure.'
In 2006 Madonna decided to adopt a boy named David Banda Mwale from Malawi. The procedure was complicated by the fact that Malawian law requires prospective parents to reside in Malawi for one year before adopting. There was a storm of controversy as some people were sure that Madonna's application received special status because of her celebrity. The adoption was finalized in 2008.
Many families who adopt children should understand that love is not enough to make their family united and happy. They should also respect their children's cultural heritage and teach them the history, traditions and language of their native country.
Adoption has quite an impact on modern society changing its structure and people's attitude to racial barriers. Adam Pertman, an adoption expert, has said, 'Suddenly there are Jews holding Chinese cultural festivals at synagogues, there are Irish people with their African American kids at St Patty's Day. This affects whole communities, and as a consequence our sense of who we are, what we look like, as a people, as individual peoples. These are profound lessons that adoption is teaching us.'
| Смотреть далее | 22.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|10 фразовых глаголов, без которых не обойтись в общении|
10 фразовых глаголов, без которых не обойтись в общении
Фразовые глаголы называются фразовыми, так как они представляют собой фразу из двух или, реже, трёх слов: глагола и предлога. Фразовые глаголы очень популярны в разговорной или неформальной речи, например, в непринуждённом общении с друзьями или коллегами.
Come on - употрябляется, когда нужно кого-то поторопить.
Come on! If we don’t leave now, we are going to be late.
Come on, don’t give up. You can do it!
Carry on - продолжать
You will gain weight if you carry on eating sweet things.
Go ahead - продолжать
Sorry, I interrupted you. Go ahead, tell me the rest.
Hold up - задерживаться
Sorry, I’m late. I was held up by the traffic.
Look forward to - предвкушать
I really look forward to starting my English class next week.
Run out - закончиться
We’ve run out of bread, I’m going to run to the store to buy some.
Make up for something - компенсировать
I was late for Jane’s Birthday party last week and I promised to take her out to dinner to make up for it.
Rush into - поторопиться с решением, поспешно броситься в како-либо дело
Take your time to think about the decision, there is no need to rush into it.
Look forward to - предвкушать
I really look forward to starting my English class next week.
Sort out - решить вопрос, проблему
Did Craig sort out his work problems yet?
Take away - взять с собой, забрать
Dancing has always been my dream. Please don’t take it away from me.
| Смотреть далее | 22.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Misunderstanding multiculturalism - Непонимание в межнациональных отношениях|
Misunderstanding multiculturalism - Непонимание в межнациональных отношениях
... Multiculturalism simply does not mean what most of its critics think. The original home of multiculturalism is Canada. Canadian philosophers and policy-makers have done most to define and elaborate the concept, since Canada is quintessentially an immigrant society. There, multiculturalism does not mean, and has never meant, different cultural and ethnic groups being left alone to get on with whatever activities they choose. It actually means the opposite. Policy-making in Canada stresses active dialogue between cultural groups, active attempts at creating community cohesion, and the acceptance of overarching Canadian identity. As a leading Canadian writer, Will Kymlicka, puts it, multiculturalism in Canada 'encourages the members of different immigrant groups to interact, to share their cultural heritage, and to participate in common educational, economic, political and legal institutions'.
Canada adopted its official 'multicultural policy' in 1971. That policy-orientation has long stressed that language tests, citizenship ceremonies and oaths are axiomatic for immigrants. Such demands are wholly uncontroversial, among the host population as well as migrants: indeed they are widely welcomed as a sign of mutual commitment. Some Canadian-style policies, such as citizenship ceremonies, have been introduced with success in the UK...
Anthony Giddens guardian.co.uk, Saturday 14 October 2006
| Смотреть далее | 21.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Quotations about multiculturalism - Цитаты о межнациональных отношениях|
Quotations about multiculturalism - Цитаты о межнациональных отношениях
- It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity. (Kofi Annan)
- Our cultural diversity has most certainly shaped our national character. (Julie Bishop)
- Discrimination is a disease. (Roger Staubach)
- Accordingly, globalization is not only something that will concern and threaten us in the future, but something that is taking place in the present and to which we must first open our eyes. (Ulrich Beck)
- And each of us can practice rights ourselves, treating each other without discrimination, respecting each other's dignity and rights. (Carol Bellamy)
- Without culture, and the relative freedom it implies, society, even when perfect, is but a jungle. (Albert Camus)
- I plead for conservation of human culture, which is much more fragile than nature herself. We needn't destroy other cultures with the force of our own. (Arthur Erickson)
| Смотреть далее | 20.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Multiculturalism in the Modern World - Межнациональные отношения в современном мире|
Топик Multiculturalism in the Modern World - Межнациональные отношения в современном мире
Before talking about multiculturalism in the modern world let us give the definition of the word 'culture'. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture defines culture as 'the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all other products of human thought made by a particular group of people at a particular time'. Culture comprises all activities people practice, what they eat, how they dress, etc.
The modern world can be called multicultural due to racial, cultural and ethnic diversity. Through the process of globalization and immigration modern society has become a mixture of different nations and cultures. Cross-cultural contacts have grown significantly nowadays. Thanks to globalization we can enjoy foreign goods, food, music, ideas, technologies and practices. Multiculturalism supports the ideals of a democratic society in which every person is free and equal in dignity and rights. It leads to understanding, friendship and respect among racial and ethnic groups. All people are equal which enables them to participate fully in the social, cultural, economic and political life irrespective of their race, religion, colour of skin or origin. The positive attitude to multiculturalism plays a very important role in the fight against all forms of extremist action.
Some people have a negative attitude to multiculturalism as they believe that it erodes social stability and national cohesion. People's prejudices and fears may result into ethnocentrism or they may lead to racial discrimination, social conflicts and violence. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is more important than others and that its culture is superior to the culture of other groups. It occurs when one culture or nation places itself at the top of an imagined hierarchy of cultures and nations.
The United Kingdom has one of the highest immigration rates in the EU. Although white people make up over 90% of the UK population, there are also many other groups living in Great Britain. The largest ethnic group is Asian (4% of the population). This group includes people from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The other main ethnic groups are Afro-Caribbean, African, Arabic, and Chinese. In London, almost 30% of the population are Asian and black. The main reason why London has become a multicultural city is the long history of immigration to Britain which increased greatly after World War II. Immigrants were encouraged to come to Britain as the country needed many workers to rebuild its economy after the war. Now the children and grandchildren of the earlier immigrants are full members of British society. Immigrants come to Great Britain for many reasons: some of them look for a well-paid job and better life; some seek protection from poverty, military conflicts or political persecution. Almost every part of London is populated with a wide mixture of people from many different countries.
Talking about the United States we often use the metaphor 'melting pot' to emphasize that all the immigrant cultures have mixed and assimilated into American society. White Americans make up the majority of the US population (about 75%). Blacks or African Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives and other races make up 25% of the population. From 1880 to 1930, there was a huge growth in immigration to the United States. Today, the largest groups of immigrants come from Mexico, the Philippines, and other parts of Latin America and Asia.
Today behind many social and political conflicts there is a problem of cultural differences. That's why we need to create a harmonious integrated society where every member enjoys equal rights. Multiculturalism helps us build bridges between communities; it is the pledge of piece, understanding, harmony and wellbeing. Multiculturalism will help us create a united and tolerant culturally diverse society. As Bhikhu Parekh, a professor of political philosophy at the University of Westminster, said, 'Multiculturalism is not about shutting oneself up in a communal or cultural ghetto and leading a segregated and self-contained life. Rather it is about opening up oneself to others, learning from their insights and criticisms, and growing as a result into a richer and tolerant culture'.
| Смотреть далее | 19.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Love - What other people say about wonderful feeling - Любовь - Что другие люди говорят о прекрасном чувстве|
Love - What other people say about wonderful feeling - Любовь - Что другие люди говорят о прекрасном чувстве
There are a lot of definitions of love.
- Love is the poetry of the senses. (Honore de Balzac)
- Love is a canvas furnished by nature and embroidered by imagination. (Voltaire)
- Love is an act of endless forgiveness, a tender look which becomes a habit. (Peter Ustinov)
- Love is a game that two can play and both win. (Eva Gabor)
- Love is an irresistible desire to be irresistibly desired. (Robert Frost)
- Love is like war: easy to begin but very hard to stop. (H. L. Mencken)
- Love is being stupid together. (Paul Valery)
- Love is life. And if you miss love, you miss life. (Leo Buscaglia)
- Love is the beauty of the soul. (Saint Augustine)
| Смотреть далее | 18.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Quotations about love - Цитаты о любви|
Quotations about love - Цитаты о любви
- All love shifts and changes. I don't know if you can be wholeheartedly in love all the time. (Julie Andrews)
- Life is the flower for which love is the honey. (Victor Hugo)
- Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage. (Lao Tzu)
- Love does not dominate; it cultivates. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
- Love does not begin and end the way we seem to think it does. Love is a battle, love is a war; love is a growing up. (James A. Baldwin)
- True love is like ghosts, which everyone talks about and few have seen. (Francois de La Rochefoucauld)
- Love is always bestowed as a gift -freely, willingly and without expectation. We don't love to be loved; we love to love. (Leo Buscaglia)
- Take away love and our earth is a tomb. (Robert Browning)
- When love is not madness, it is not love. (Pedro Calderon de la Barca)
| Смотреть далее | 17.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Sonnet 148. O me! what eyes hath love put in my head - Cонет 148. О, как любовь мой изменила глаз!|
Sonnet 148. O me! What eyes hath love put in my head - Cонет 148. О, как любовь мой изменила глаз!
Oh, me! What kind of eyes has love put into my head that I don’t see anything accurately? Or if my eyes do see correctly, what’s happened to my judgment to make me wrongly criticize what they see? If the woman I love to look at is beautiful, why does the rest of the world say she’s not? If she’s not, then a person in love doesn’t see as accurately as others. No—how can a lover see right? Oh, how can a lover’s eye work properly when it’s so distressed by staying awake and crying? It’s no wonder then that I’m wrong about what I see; the sun itself doesn’t see anything until the sky is clear. Oh, ingenious love, you keep me blind with tears so I won’t discover my lover’s foul faults, as I would if my eyes worked properly.
by William Shakespeare
| Смотреть далее | 16.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
|Топик Love Is Life - Любовь это жизнь|
Топик Love Is Life - Любовь это жизнь
What is love? Even in this advanced age of science, when people conquer space, do the shopping via the Internet, clone animals and transplant organs, they still don't fully understand the nature and purpose of love. There are numerous definitions of love. For example, the dictionary defines love as 'a strong feeling of fondness for another person, especially between members of a family or close friends'. Love is a mixture of complex and extremely powerful feelings. It is a major theme in philosophy, literature, music, poetry and cinematography.
A great number of scientists and psychologists have been trying to understand the essence of love. Robert Sternberg, an American psychologist, has proposed a triangular theory of love. To his mind love is made of some combination of intimacy, passion and commitment. According to Robert Sternberg, intimacy 'encompasses feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness'. Passion 'encompasses drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation'. Commitment is 'the decision to remain with another, and in the long term, the shared achievements and plans made with that other'. Robert Sternberg has affirmed that 'passion is the quickest to develop, and the quickest to fade. Intimacy develops more slowly, and commitment more gradually still'. Different stages and types of love can be explained by different combinations of these three elements. Robert Sternberg has also distinguished such types of love as nonlove, liking or friendship, infatuated love (pure passion), empty love (commitment without intimacy or passion), romantic love (emotional and physical bonds), companionate love (intimate, non-passionate love), fatuous love (passion without intimacy), consummate love (perfect love).
Scientists affirm that love has a chemical basis. Recent studies in neuroscience have shown that when people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals that stimulate the brain's pleasure center and cause increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. This stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years. So it is not unusual that passion which characterizes the first stage of love disappears with the passing of time and other feelings such as respect, tenderness and affection set in. Only true love stands the test of time. People who are truly in love and who have been together for years don't grow apart but draw closer to one another.
Studies have also indicated that brain scans of people who are in love resemble to those with a mental illness. Scientists say that love deactivates the brain regions associated with negative emotions, with social judgment and with judging other people's intentions and emotions. That is why people in love are often unable to make critical judgments and they look at their partner through rose-coloured spectacles.
What is the secret of long-term relationships? Why do some couples live long and happily together while others separate? Maybe the secret is to try to understand and forgive each other and to feel the responsibility for your partner's life. Shared interests unite people while sincerity and mutual understanding form emotional closeness. And of course it is very important to have confidence in each other as in true love there is no room for doubt and jealousy.
| Смотреть далее | 15.04.2016 | Отправить ссылку друзьям|
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